The Home of Football: How Globalisation has Impacted the English Football Team

Sam Beecham, Mona Seyed Esfahani

Abstract


By winning the World Cup at Wembley in 1966, the England team created arguably the most prideful postwar moment for fans, who saw the team as a symbol of national success (Armstrong and Giulianotti 1999). Since then, the England national team has experienced many highs and lows, and in recent years there has been a growing disinterest with the national team because of poor performances at international competitions. As England is culturally far different from the country it was in 1966, this paper aims to discover the impact that globalisation has had on national identity through Tajfel and Turner’s Social Identity Approach (1979).

This theoretical framework aims to explain how individuals behave and group themselves in regards to the social world. Drawing upon the ideas of the Social Identity Approach helped gain a better understanding of attitudes towards the English national team and what had caused these to change over time.


References


Abell, J., Condor, S., Lowe, R., Gibson, S. and Stevenson, C., 2007. Who ate all the pride? Patriotic sentiment and English football support. Nations and nationalism, 13 (1), 97-116.

Anderson, B., 1983. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. New York: Verso.

Appadurai, A., 1990. Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy. Public culture, 2 (2), 1-24.

Ariely, G., 2012. Globalization, immigration and national identity: how the level of globalization affects the relations between nationalism, constructive patriotism and attitudes toward immigrants?. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 15 (4), 539-557.

Armstrong, G. and Giulianotti, R., 1999. Football cultures and identity. London: Macmillan Press.

Arnett, J., 2002. The psychology of globalization. American psychologist, 57(10), 774–783.

Bairner, A., 2001. Sport, nationalism and globalization: European and north American perspectives. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Beiske, B., 2007. Research methods: uses and limitations of questionnaires, interviews and case studies. Munich: GRIN Verlag.

Biddle, S., Hanrahao, S. and Sellars, C., 2001. Attributions: past, present and future. In: Singer, R., Hausenblas, H. and Janelle, C., eds. Handbook of sport psychology. 2nd Edition. New York: Wiley, pp. 444-471.

Billings, A. and Deviln, M., 2016. Examining the world’s game in the United States: impact of nationalized qualities on fan identification and consumption of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Journal of broadcasting and electronic media, 60 (1), 40-60.

Blain, N., Boyle, R. and O’Donnell, H., 1993. Sport and national identity in the European media. Leicester: Leicester University Press.

Blumer, H., 1969. Symbolic interactionism: perspective and method. Berkley: University of California Press.

Blumer, H., 1978. Methodological principles of empirical science. In: Denzin, N., ed. Sociological methods: A sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 20-39.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2011. Business research methods. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Calhoun, C., 2007. Nations matter: culture, history and the cosmopolitan dream. London: Routledge.

Castells, M., 2000. The power of identity. The information age: economy, society and culture [2nd Edition]. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Corbin, J. and Strauss, A., 1990. Grounded theory research: procedures, canons and evaluative criteria. Qualitative sociology, 13 (1), 3-21.

Creswell, J., 2007. Qualitative inquiry & research design. California: Sage.

Crolley, L. and Hand, D., 2006. Football and European identity: historical narratives through the press. London: Routledge.

Dauncey, H. and Hare, G., 2013. Sport and media: representing and conceptualising identity and community. Movement & sport sciences - Science & Motricité, (86), 5-14.

Denzin, K. and Lincoln, Y., 1998. The landscape of qualitative research: theories and issues. California: Sage.

Eichelberger, R., 1989. Disciplined inquiry: understanding and doing educational research. New York: Longman.

Elling, A., Van Hilvoorde, I. and Van Den Dool, R., 2014. Creating or awakening national pride through sporting success: A longitudinal study on macro effects in the Netherlands. International review for the sociology of sport, 49 (2), 129-151.

Flick, U., 1992. Triangulation revisited: strategy for validation or alternative? Journal for the theory of social behaviour [online], 22 (1), 175-198.

Flick, U., 2014. An introduction to qualitative research. 5th edition. London: Sage.

Fontana, A. and Frey, J., 1998. Interviewing: The art of science. In: Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y., eds. The landscape of qualitative research: theories and issues. California: Sage, pp. 47-78.

Funk, D. and James, J., 2001. The psychological continuum model: A conceptual framework for understanding an individual's psychological connection to sport. Sport Management Review, 4 (2), 119-150.

Gibbons, T., 2014. English national identity and football fan culture: who are ya? Surrey: Ashgate Publishing.

Giulianotti, R. and Robertson, R., 2007. Globalization and sport. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Glaser, B. and Strauss, A., 1967. The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.

Goldkuhl, G., 2012. Pragmatism vs interpretivism in in qualitative information systems research. European journal of information systems [online], 21 (2), 135-146.

Griggs, G. and Gibbons, T., 2012. ‘Harry walks, Fabio runs’: A case study on the current relationship between English national identity, soccer and the English press. International review for the sociology of sport, 49 (5), 536-549.

Guba, E., 1981. Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational and communication and technology journal [online], 29, 75-91.

Hamel, J., Dufour, S. and Fortin, D., 1993. Case study methods. London: Sage.

Hannum, K., 2012. Social identity: knowing yourself, leading others. Farringdon: CCL.

Hargreaves, J., 2002. Globalization theory, global sport, and nations and nationalism. In: Sugden, J. and Tomlinson, A., eds. Power games: a critical sociology of sport. London: Routledge.

Harvey, J., Horne, J., Safai, P., Darell, S. and O’Neill, S., 2014. Sport and social movements: From local to global. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Haslam, S., Turner, J., Oakes, P., McGarty, C. & Reynolds, K., 1998. The group as a basis for emergent stereotype consensus. European review of social psychology, 8 (1), 203–239.

Hobsbawm, E. (1992). Nations and nationalism since 1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hooson, D., 1994. Geography and national identity. New York: Wiley.

Huddy, L. and Khatib, N., 2007. American patriotism, national identity, and political involvement. American journal of political science, 51 (1), 63-77.

Husserl, E., 1962. Ideas: general introduction to pure phenomenology. New York: Collier Books.

Jarvie, G., 1993. Sport, culture and society: an introduction. London: Routledge.

Jones, I., 2015. Research methods for sports studies [online]. 3rd edition. Oxon: Routledge.

Jung, J., 2008. Growing supranational identities in a globalizing world? A multilevel analysis of the world values surveys. European journal of political research, 47(5), 578–609.

Kellas, J., 1991. European integration and the regions. Parliamentary affairs, 44 (2), 226-239.

Kian, E., Anderson, E., Vincent, J. and Murray, R., 2015. Sports journalists’ views on gay men in sport, society and within sport media. International review of the sociology of sport [online], 50 (8), 895-911.

Kvale, S., 1996. Interviews: an introduction to qualitative research interviewing. London: Sage.

Lester, S., 1999. An introduction to phenomenological research [online]. Available from: https://www.rgs.org/NR/rdonlyres/F50603E0-41AF-4B15-9C84-BA7E4DE8CB4F/0/Seaweedphenomenologyresearch.pdf (Accessed May 20 2017).

Maguire, J., 1999. Global sport: identities, societies, civilizations. Cambridge: Polity.

Maguire, J. and Poulton, E., 1999. European identity politics in EURO 96: Invented traditions and national habitus codes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 34(1), 17-29.

Maguire, J., 2011. Globalization, sport and national identities. Sport in society, 14 (7-8), 978-993.

May, T., 2011. Social research: issues, methods and research. London: McGraw-Hill International.

Miles, M. and Huberman, M., 1994. Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. London: Sage.

Moorhouse, H., 1996. One state, several countries: Soccer and nationality in a ‘United Kingdom’. In: J. Mangan, ed., Tribal identities: nationalism, Europe, sport. London: Frank Class, pp. 55-74.

Norris, P. and Inglehart, R., 2009. Cosmopolitan communications: cultural diversity in a globalized world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oakes, P., Haslam, S. and Turner, J., 1994. Stereotyping and social reality. Oxford: Blackwell.

Patton, M., 1990. Qualitative evaluation and research methods. London: Sage.

Patton, M., 2002. Qualitative evaluation and research methods. 3rd edition. London: Sage.

Reicher, S., Haslam, A., Spears, R. and Reynolds, K., 2012. A social mind: the context of John Turner's work and its influence. European review of social psychology, 23 (1), 344-385.

Ritzer, G. and Dean, P., 2015. Globalization: a basic text [online]. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Robertson, R., 1992. Globalisation: social theory and global culture. London: Sage.

Russell, D., 1997. Football and the English: a social history of association football, 1863-1995. Preston: Carnegie.

Salazar, J., 1998. Social identity and national identity. In: S. Worchel, F. Morales, D. Paez and J. Deschamps, ed., Social identity: international perspectives, 1st ed. [online] London: Sage, pp.114-124. Available from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/bournemouth/reader.action?docID=10392703 [Accessed 11 Mar. 2017].

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A., 2016. Research methods for business students [online]. 6th edition. Harlow: Pearson.

Scheele, B. and Groeben, N., 1988. Dialogue consensus methods for the reconstruction of subjective theory. Tubingen: Francke.

Shenton, A., 2004. Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for information [online], 22, 63-75.

Shirky, C., 2011. The political power of social media: technology, the public sphere and political change. Foreign affairs, 90 (1), 28-41.

Smith, A. and Porter, D., 2004. Sport and national identity in a post-war world. London: Routledge.

Smith, A., 2007. Nationalism in decline? In M. Young, E. Zuelow & A. Strum (Eds.), Nationalism in a global era. New York: Routledge, pp. 17-42.

Smith, M., 2010. Research methods in sport. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Spears, R., Reicher, S. and Haslam, A., 2010. The social identity approach in social psychology. In: C. Mohanty and M. Wetherell, ed., The Sage handbook of identities, 1st ed. London: Sage, pp.45-62.

Stake, R., 1994. Case Studies. In: Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y., eds. Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp. 236-247.

Tajfel, H. and Turner, J., 1979. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. The social psychology of intergroup relations, 33, (47,) 33-47.

Tajfel, H. and Turner, J., 1986. The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. The social psychology of intergroup relations, 7 (24), 55-72.

Tajfel, H., 1981. Human groups and social categories: studies in social psychology. Contemporary sociology, 12 (2), 213-215.

Tajfel, H., 1981. Human groups and social categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tuck, J., 2003. The men in white: reflections on rugby union, the media and Englishness. International review for the sociology of sport, 38 (2), 177-199.

Turner, J. and Reynolds K., 2011. Self-categorization theory. In P. Van Lange, A. Kruglanski, E. Higgins, eds. Handbook of theories in social psychology. London: Sage, pp. 399-417.

Turner, J. and Reynolds, K., 2012. Self-categorization theory. In: P. Van Lange, A. Kruglanski and T. Higgins, ed., Handbook of theories of social psychology: Volume 2, 1st ed. London: Sage, pp.399-413.

Turner, J., 1981. Intergroup behaviour. Oxford: Blackwell.

Turner, J., 1982. Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group. In H. Tajfel, ed., Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 15-40.

Turner, J., 1987. Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. British journal of social psychology, 26 (4), 34 pp. 1–18.

Veal, A., 2006. Research methods for leisure and tourism: A practical guide. 3rd edition. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Wann, D. and Dolan, T., 1994. Spectators' evaluations of rival and fellow fans. The psychological record, 44 (1), 351-358.

Waters, M., 2001. Globalization. Oxon: Routledge.

Worchel, S., Iuzzini, J., Coutant, D. and Ivaldi, M., 2000. A multidimensional model of identity: relating individual and group identities to intergroup behaviour. In: D. Capozza and R. Brown, ed., Social identity processes: trends in theory and research, 1st ed. London: Sage, pp.15-23.

Yin, R., 1994. Case study research: design and methods. 2nd edition. London: Sage.

Yoshino, K., 1992. Cultural nationalism in contemporary Japan: a sociological enquiry. Oxon: Routledge.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.